Ecosystem là gì

     
Shifting weather patterns as a result of climate change, affecting rainfall and temperature, are likely lớn impact the ecosystem goods & services such as clean water & food on which people rely.

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Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA), involving the conservation, sustainable management và restoration of ecosystems can help people adapt lớn the impacts of climate change.Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is a nature-based solution that harnesses biodiversity and ecosystem services lớn reduce vulnerability & build resilience to climate change.In order lớn achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, reach global biodiversity targets & effectively address climate change, nature-based solutions should be treated as integral to adaptation strategies at global, national và local levels

 


What is the issue? Why is it important ? What can be done? 


Communities have sầu been adapting lớn climate variability for centuries, but today their coping mechanisms are being outpaced by the fast-changing climate. Shifting weather patterns as a result of climate change, affecting rainfall & temperature, are likely to lớn impact the ecosystem goods và services on which people rely. Climate change is also likely to lớn magnify existing risks of and vulnerability to lớn disasters. It is therefore critical to lớn develop adaptation capabilities to be able khổng lồ deal with these challenges.

In response lớn global climate change impacts, most countries have focussed on ‘hard’ or ‘grey’ infrastructure options such as embankments for flood control or new reservoirs khổng lồ cope with water shortages. These options can be costly to lớn build and maintain, & generally vì not take the benefits of ecosystem-based approaches inlớn account.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA), involving the conservation, sustainable management & restoration of ecosystems are cost-effective sầu solutions that can help people adapt lớn the impacts of climate change. Examples of such nature-based solutions to lớn climate change include sustainable agriculture, integrated water resource management and sustainable forest management.

EbA harnesses biodiversity and ecosystem services khổng lồ increase resilience & reduce the vulnerability of human communities và natural systems to lớn climate change.


Healthy ecosystems such as intact forests, wetlands & coastal areas provide many benefits lớn local communities including firewood, clean water, medicines, shelter và food. They can also khung physical barriers against extreme weather events such as cyclones và storm surges. Biodiverse forests, for example, can protect roads and other infrastructure from erosion and landslides.

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According khổng lồ a study carried out by Costanza et al. on the 34 major hurricanes in the United States since 1980, and published in the journal AMBIO in 2008, the loss of one hectare of wetland results in an average US$ 33,000 increase in storm damage. It also estimated that wetlands in the US contribute US$ 23.2 billion in storm protection services. Another study published in the journal Nature Climate Change in 2013, showed that natural habitats currently protect 67% of US coastline.

The success of ecosystem-based approaches depends on the recognition & uptake of local and traditional knowledge, & consideration of the needs of vulnerable community members such as women, the elderly và the poor. Through effective sầu ecosystem management, EbA contributes khổng lồ biodiversity conservation và lớn local economies.


EbA is now being used in hundreds of projects all over the world. Governments, civil society organisations và multilateral agencies are appreciating the effectiveness of EbA and its multiple benefits. The German Government’s environment ministry (IKI-BMUB) for instance has funded EbA projects worldwide worth around €130 million since 2008.

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However, for ecosystem management approaches to lớn effectively contribute khổng lồ global climate change adaptation efforts at scale, more investment & the integration of EbA into lớn climate policies are needed. Climate adaptation responses, both at the policy and field levels, can only be effective sầu if they are fully integrated inlớn development & conservation policies và projects.

Efforts are needed to develop working links between the adaptation goals of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Aibỏ ra Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) lớn tackle climate change challenges in an integrated way.

This should involve implementing environmentally và biodiversity-sensitive sầu development mechanisms. Countries can include EbA approaches in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement on climate change và National Biodiversity Strategies & kích hoạt Plans (NBSAPs) of the CBD. The implementation of these plans will also contribute towards achieving SDG targets.

EbA is an emerging area. More scientific data và evidence from the field are needed to lớn validate its value & cost-effectiveness. This requires the development of guidelines and tools based on lessons learned from the field. Knowledge và experiences generated through numerous EbA projects should be shared widely to avoid duplication. Standards developed can be incorporated inlớn international adaptation policy instruments và national adaptation policies.


FEBA (Friends of Ecosystem-based Adaptation). (2017). Making Ecosystem-based Adaptation Effective: A Framework for Defining Qualification Criteria và Quality Standards (FEBA technical paper developed for UNFCCC-SBSTA 46). Bertram, M., Barrow, E., Blackwood, K., Rizvi, A.R., Reid, H., và von Scheliha-Dawid, S. (authors). GIZ, Bonn, Germany, IIED, London, UK, and webchiase.vn, Gl&, Switzerl&.

Monty, F., Murti, R., Miththapala, S. và Buyông chồng, C. (eds). (2017). Ecosystems protecting infrastructure và communities: Lessons learned và guidelines for implementation. Glvà, Switzerland: IUcông nhân.

Rizvi, A.R., Baig, S., Verdone, M. (2015). Ecosystems Based Adaptation: Knowledge Gaps in Making an Economic Case for Investing in Nature Based Solutions for Climate Change. Gland, Switzerland: IUcông nhân.

Rizvi, A.R., and van Riel, K. (2014). Nature Based Solutions for Climate Change Adaptation – Knowledge Gaps. Glvà, Switzerland: webchiase.vn.

Andrade Pérez, A., Herrera Fernandez, B. & Cazzolla Gatti, R. (eds.) (2010). Building Resilience khổng lồ Climate Change: Ecosystem-based adaptation and lessons from the field.

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Gland, Switzerland: webchiase.vn

A. Colls, N. Ash, và N. Ikkala (2009). Ecosystem-based Adaptation: a natural response khổng lồ climate change. Glvà, Switzerland: webchiase.vn.


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