What is a peer

     
Adam Hayes is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive sầu derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics & behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Retìm kiếm and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7 và 63 licenses. He currently researches và teaches at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

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What Is a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Service?

A peer-to-peer (P2P) service is a decentralized platform whereby two individuals interact directly with each other, without intermediation by a third các buổi tiệc nhỏ. Instead, the buyer & the seller transact directly with each other via the P2Phường service. The P2P platform may provide services such as search, screening, rating, payment processing, or escrow.


A peer-to-peer service is a platsize that directly connects parties to a transaction without the third-tiệc nhỏ intermediary.Peer-to-peer services leverage technology to overcome the transaction costs of trust, enforcement, & information asymmetries that have sầu traditionally addressed by using trust third parties.Peer-to-peer platforms offer services such as payment processing, information about buyers and sellers, và unique assurance khổng lồ their users.

Understanding Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Services

The modern peer-to-peer concept was popularized by file-sharing systems, such as the music-sharing application Napster, which appeared in 1999. The peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users lớn directly connect, size groups, & collaborate with each other lớn function as user-created tìm kiếm engines, virtual supercomputers, and file systems. This Model of network arrangement differs from the client-hệ thống Mã Sản Phẩm, where communication is usually khổng lồ và from a central VPS.


Today P2P. services have moved beyond purely Internet services, though they are mostly thought of as at least Internet-based. Peer-to-peer services involve activities that range from simple buying và selling lớn those that are considered part of the sharing economy. Some peer-to-peer services don"t even involve sầu a paid transaction by the users at all, but they bring together individuals khổng lồ work on joint projects, cốt truyện information, or communicate without direct intermediation. These kinds of P2P services may be operated as không tính phí nonprofit services or generate revenue by advertising khổng lồ users or by selling user"s data.


When a third các buổi tiệc nhỏ is removed from the transaction, there is a greater risk that the provider of the service may fail khổng lồ deliver, that the service will not be of the chất lượng expected, that the buyer may not pay, or that one or both of the parties might be able lớn take advantage of asymmetric information. This extra risk constitutes added transaction costs to a P2Phường transaction. Often, P2P.. services are created with the intent of facilitating these transactions và reducing risk for both buyer và seller. The buyer, seller, or both might pay the cost of the service or the service may be offered for không lấy phí và generate revenue in some other way.

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Examples of Peer-to-Peer(P2P) Services

Open-source Software

Anybody toàn thân can view and/or modify code for the software. Open-source software tries lớn eliminate the central publisher/editor of software by crowdsourcing the coding, editing, & unique control of software ahy vọng writers and users.


Filesharing

Filesharing is where uploaders & downloaders meet khổng lồ swap truyền thông và software files. In addition to lớn peer-to-peer networking, filesharing services can provide scanning & security for shared files. They may also offer users the ability to lớn anonymously bypass intellectual property rights or alternatively may provide enforcement for intellectual property.


Online Marketplaces

Online marketplaces consist of a network for private sellers of goods khổng lồ find interested buyers. Online market places can offer promotion services for sellers, ratings of buyers & sellers based on history, payment processing, and escrow services.


Cryptocurrency and Blockchain

A blockchain is an aspect of cryptocurrency technology. It is a network where users can make payments, process, & verify payments without a central currency issuer or clearinghouse. Blockchain technology allows people khổng lồ transact business using cryptocurrencies and lớn make and enforce smart contracts.


Homesharing

Homesharing allows property owners lớn lease all or part of their property to short-term renters. Homesharing services typically provide payment processing, chất lượng assurance, or rating và qualification of owners và renters.

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Ridesharing

Ridesharing is a platform for oto owners to lớn offer chauffeur service for people seeking a taxi ride. Ridesharing platforms offer similar services as homesharing services.


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